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100% of your donations go directly to Shamsa.

Shamsa is a student from Tanzania who needs $150 by July 15, 2020 to fund her education.

$0 raised
$150 to go
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Shamsa
The most difficult experience I had in my life is when my uncle who used to pay my school requirement, passed away. I felt helpless.
The moment when I felt proud of myself was when I did well in national examination and was chosen to join advanced level in the combination that I dreamed about.
The happiest moment in my life is when WEF and The School Fund TZ started to help me in my studies because it helped brighten my dream once again.
I want to give service to man by becoming a helpful doctor. I will get there by upgrading my priorities and stop babying my flaws. I will work hard.
After reaching my dreams, I am going to make my family, community and WEF proud of me and help them reach their goals as well.
If I could change my country, then I would like to change spirit and faith of the citizen in my country so that they could believe everything is possible as long as it enhances development and upgrades lifestyles.

Birthday: 2001

Gender: Female

Favorite Classes: Physics, chemistry, biology

Favorite Books: Story books

I Want to Be: Doctor

Hobbies: Reading books

Family: father, 2 brothers, 2 sisters, 2 grandmothers

Funding for Form 6 2020:
School Fees   $150

TOTAL   $150
Funding for Form 5 2019: $100
Funding for Form 4 2018: $375
Funding for Form 3 2017: $380
Funding for Form 2 2016: $400
Shamsa's Journal
157 Entries
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I would like to ask you to tell me what is your major accomplishment during your break. What is the proudest thing you did you would like to share with us?
Good luck with your new school year. I want to let you know when you reach your goal and successful. Please don't forget to help all other students who need your help to reach their dream. To see you help out all the member of TSFTZ family will be the best rewqrd for me
Dear student,

Welcome back to school. I just want to say hello to you. Remember we are thinking about you. I hope this new year you set a new goal, you would like to achieve.

Meanwhile, remember to read as much as you can. Most of the knowledge you learn is from reading.  Write a couple of sentences a day.  It is nice at the end of the day to think about what you have accomplished.  It is a very good skill you should have. If you have good writing skills, it will benefit you all your life.

My friend wrote an entry to a student journal.  I thought it is so great, I would like to share it with you.  I hope we could work on these three things to make each of us a better person:

1. Respect other people's opinions even they are different from your own.
2. Experience the joy of learning
3. Touch someone's soul with your kindness.
Dear Students,I had a great time when I visited you this August.During the interview and get together party.Alice and I both emphasise that we would like you to start the TSF club.What is the progress of the club?I would like you to start before school ends.
Your first assignment I would like each of you to write a joke. The funniest thing you experience your life.You could send to me through the journal and you could present in your first club meeting.
Regarding the Journal. I would like you to write to us what is happening during your school, what is the most fun you had, your experience, your study.. etc.I want to know more about you and what do you do. The best way is to keep a good diary, write down anything happen to you during that day.
I would liek to hear from you soon.
Hello student,
It was really nice to see you this August when Alice and I came to your school.Alice has been very busy with her work. I spend time to catch the work for the TSF website to put all the new students on to our website. Please check it out.
I am all very proud of you, your hard work, your committee to the School Fund.and you all so engage in the school and help and support each other.Good friend always is the good to have who will be nice  resource you could to have.
I am so glad that you all learn so much from the REACH PLUS too. That is a great teacher and always there for you. Keep the good work. May God with you and carry you out to reach your dream. That is what you could do the best for return. One day when you reach you dream, just help the other people who need help reach their dream.
HELLO SHAMSA,
Hi everyone,
My name is Amritha and I am now a volunteer at World Education Fund in San Francisco, US. I was born and brought up in India and I used to work for children who have very limited opportunities and exposure.I had a great time teaching them English and Math. I am very excited to be writing to you. I'd like to see you all answer one question for me - What is your most special memory in your life so far? Looking forward to your answers.
Bybye!
Hello WEF!!!
It's my hope that your all doing fine back to my side am doing well both physically and mentally.Today i would like to share with you concept of human activities as follows;

Human activity is something that people do in order to achieve a certain goal.Also Human activities refer to the sum of all things that human beings do to modify the environment,as well as the exploitation of the environment for the resources needed to survive.

There are two types of human activities which are SOCIAL and ECONOMIC activities.Social activities studied in geography include;population and settlement while Economic activities include;Agriculture,tourism,trade,mining and so many others.
This is what i prepare for today Thank You.

Yours Shamsa.
Hello mom judy,
İ hope your doing oky back to ma side am doing fine.
İt have been along way since i wrote,but am being very great of you and your the person that i wont forget,your my happiness and my joyfull you make my life rise and bright once again am really greatfull of you.
Thanks to God he brought you into my life your help made me complete my 'O' level studies and pass well by getting division '2' and i have been chosen to join Rujewa secondary school for 'A' level studies,Thank you mom Judy for your generosity and may God make your every wish come true.

Your sincerity Shamsa.
Love you mom JUdy!!!
Hello,

I know you are going to have your Exam soon. You are all very busy to prepare your exam. One more month you are going to have your break. I would like you write down everything during the break. What is the most interesting things, what is most memorable moment, what is the most proud things you do. How do you help your family and community.
It is very good habit to keep good diary for yourself when you back to school again. You can put all of that in the journal to share with us.
Hello how are you!
Time went by very quickly this school year. It is only one more month this semester will be end. I know very soon you will be at your final exam. Some of you will be at your National exam. I wish all you the best. Remember MMM, try you best, only you could make you dream come true. Let me know what is your plan during your long break.
I hope you find the time to read.
Hello,

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N
2O. At room temperature, it is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a slight metallic scent and taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. It is soluble in water.

Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects. Its name "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy,[clarification needed] is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It also is used as an oxidizer in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines.

Nitrous oxide occurs in small amounts in the atmosphere, but recently has been found to be a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs.

Nitrous oxide may be used as an oxidizer in a rocket motor. This is advantageous over other oxidisers in that it is much less toxic, but due to its stability at room temperature is also easier to store and relatively safe to carry on a flight. As a secondary benefit, it may be decomposed readily to form breathing air. Its high density and low storage pressure (when maintained at low temperature) enable it to be highly competitive with stored high-pressure gas systems.

In a 1914 patent, American rocket pioneer Robert Goddard suggested nitrous oxide and gasoline as possible propellants for a liquid-fuelled rocket. Nitrous oxide has been the oxidiser of choice in several hybrid rocket designs (using solid fuel with a liquid or gaseous oxidizer). The combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others. It also is notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel.

Nitrous oxide also may be used in a monopropellant rocket. In the presence of a heated catalyst, N
2O will decompose exothermically into nitrogen and oxygen, at a temperature of approximately 1,070 °F (577 °C). Because of the large heat release, the catalytic action rapidly becomes secondary, as thermal autodecomposition becomes dominant. In a vacuum thruster, this may provide a monopropellant specific impulse (Isp) of as much as 180 s. While noticeably less than the Isp available from hydrazine thrusters (monopropellant or bipropellant with dinitrogen tetroxide), the decreased toxicity makes nitrous oxide an option worth investigating.

Nitrous oxide is said to deflagrate at approximately 600 °C (1,112 °F) at a pressure of 309 psi (21 atmospheres) At 600 psi for example, the required ignition energy is only 6 joules, whereas N
2O at 130 psi a 2500-joule ignition energy input is insufficient.
Hello everybody,

A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate (mainly aragonite or a mixture of aragonite and calcite)in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes, known as baroque pearls, can occur. The finest quality natural pearls have been highly valued as gemstones and objects of beauty for many centuries. Because of this, pearl has become a metaphor for something rare, fine, admirable and valuable.

The most valuable pearls occur spontaneously in the wild, but are extremely rare. These wild pearls are referred to as natural pearls. Cultured or farmed pearls from pearl oysters and freshwater mussels make up the majority of those currently sold. Imitation pearls are also widely sold in inexpensive jewelry, but the quality of their iridescence is usually very poor and is easily distinguished from that of genuine pearls. Pearls have been harvested and cultivated primarily for use in jewelry, but in the past were also used to adorn clothing. They have also been crushed and used in cosmetics, medicines and paint formulations.

Whether wild or cultured, gem-quality pearls are almost always nacreous and iridescent, like the interior of the shell that produces them. However, almost all species of shelled mollusks are capable of producing pearls (technically "calcareous concretions") of lesser shine or less spherical shape. Although these may also be legitimately referred to as "pearls" by gemological labs and also under U.S. Federal Trade Commission rules, and are formed in the same way, most of them have no value except as curiosities.
Hello everyone,

A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground. The word cave can also refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos, though strictly speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide, and a rock shelter is endogene.A cavern is a specific type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems

Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves and the cave environment. Visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking.

The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years. Caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of chemical processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, microorganisms, pressure, and atmospheric influences. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and shape present day caves.

It is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) due to the pressure of overlying rocks.For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the lower limit of karst forming processes, coinciding with the base of the soluble carbonate rocks. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution.

Caves can be classified in various other ways as well, including active vs. relict; active caves have water flowing through them, relict caves do not, though water may be retained in them. Types of active caves include inflow caves ("into which a stream sinks"), outflow caves ("from which a stream emerges"), and through caves ("traversed by a stream").

Solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves. Such caves form in rock that is soluble; most occur in limestone, but they can also form in other rocks including chalk, dolomite, marble, salt, and gypsum. Rock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, faults, joints, and comparable features. Over time cracks enlarge to become caves and cave systems.

The largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 (carbonic acid) and naturally occurring organic acids. The dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation. These include flowstones, stalactites, stalagmites, helictites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems.

Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S (hydrogen sulfide) gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes. This gas mixes with groundwater and forms H2SO4 (sulfuric acid). The acid then dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, by acidic water percolating from the surface

Lava tubes are formed through volcanic activity and are the most common primary caves. As lava flows downhill, its surface cools and solidifies. Hot liquid lava continues to flow under that crust, and if most of it flows out, a hollow tube remains. Examples of such caves can be found in the Canary Islands, Jeju-do, the basaltic plains of Eastern Idaho, and other places. Kazumura Cave near Hilo, Hawaii is a remarkably long and deep lava tube; it is 65.6 km long (40.8 mi).

Sea caves are found along coasts around the world. A special case is littoral caves, which are formed by wave action in zones of weakness in sea cliffs. Often these weaknesses are faults, but they may also be dykes or bedding-plane contacts. Some wave-cut caves are now above sea level because of later uplift. Elsewhere, in places such as Thailand's Phang Nga Bay, solutional caves have been flooded by the sea and are now subject to littoral erosion. Sea caves are generally around 5 to 50 metres (16 to 164 ft) in length, but may exceed 300 metres (980 ft).

Corrasional or erosional caves are those that form entirely by erosion by flowing streams carrying rocks and other sediments. These can form in any type of rock, including hard rocks such as granite. Generally there must be some zone of weakness to guide the water, such as a fault or joint. A subtype of the erosional cave is the wind or aeolian cave, carved by wind-born sediments. Many caves formed initially by solutional processes often undergo a subsequent phase of erosional or vadose enlargement where active streams or rivers pass through them.

Glacier cave
Glacier caves are formed by melting ice and flowing water within and under glaciers. The cavities are influenced by the very slow flow of the ice, which tends to collapse the caves again. Glacier caves are sometimes misidentified as "ice caves", though this latter term is properly reserved for bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations.

Fracture cave
Fracture caves are formed when layers of more soluble minerals, such as gypsum, dissolve out from between layers of less soluble rock. These rocks fracture and collapse in blocks of stone.

Talus cave
Talus caves are formed by the openings among large boulders that have fallen down into a random heap, often at the bases of cliffs. These unstable deposits are called talus or scree, and may be subject to frequent rockfalls and landslides.
Hello everybody,

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms. Diffusion is driven by a gradient in chemical potential of the diffusing species.

A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity e.g. concentration, pressure, or temperature with the change in another variable, usually distance. A change in concentration over a distance is called a concentration gradient, a change in pressure over a distance is called a pressure gradient, and a change in temperature over a distance is called a temperature gradient.

A distinguishing feature of diffusion is that it depends on particle random walk, and results in mixing or mass transport without requiring directed bulk motion. Bulk motion, or bulk flow, is the characteristic of advection.The term convection is used to describe the combination of both transport phenomena.

An example of a situation in which bulk motion and diffusion can be differentiated is the mechanism by which oxygen enters the body during external respiration known as breathing. The lungs are located in the thoracic cavity, which expands as the first step in external respiration. This expansion leads to an increase in volume of the alveoli in the lungs, which causes a decrease in pressure in the alveoli. This creates a pressure gradient between the air outside the body at relatively high pressure and the alveoli at relatively low pressure. The air moves down the pressure gradient through the airways of the lungs and into the alveoli until the pressure of the air and that in the alveoli are equal i.e. the movement of air by bulk flow stops once there is no longer a pressure gradient.

The air arriving in the alveoli has a higher concentration of oxygen than the “stale” air in the alveoli. The increase in oxygen concentration creates a concentration gradient for oxygen between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries that surround the alveoli. Oxygen then moves by diffusion, down the concentration gradient, into the blood. The other consequence of the air arriving in alveoli is that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the alveoli decreases. This creates a concentration gradient for carbon dioxide to diffuse from the blood into the alveoli, as fresh air has a very low concentration of carbon dioxide compared to the blood in the body.

The pumping action of the heart then transports the blood around the body. As the left ventricle of the heart contracts, the volume decreases, which increases the pressure in the ventricle. This creates a pressure gradient between the heart and the capillaries, and blood moves through blood vessels by bulk flow down the pressure gradient. As the thoracic cavity contracts during expiration, the volume of the alveoli decreases and creates a pressure gradient between the alveoli and the air outside the body, and air moves by bulk flow down the pressure gradient.
Hello everyone,

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as a condenser or condensator.The original name is still widely used in many languages, but not in English.

The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many capacitor types are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, and oxide layers. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy.

When two conductors experience a potential difference, for example, when a capacitor is attached across a battery, an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing a net positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate. No current actually flows through the dielectric, however, there is a flow of charge through the source circuit. If the condition is maintained sufficiently long, the current through the source circuit ceases. However, if a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor.

Capacitance is defined as the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The unit of capacitance in the International System of Units (SI) is the farad (F), defined as one coulomb per volt (1 C/V). Capacitance values of typical capacitors for use in general electronics range from about 1 picofarad (pF) (10−12 F) to about 1 millifarad (mF) (10−3 F).

The capacitance of a capacitor is proportional to the surface area of the plates (conductors) and inversely related to the gap between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. It has an electric field strength limit, known as the breakdown voltage. The conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance.

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power transmission systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow.The property of energy storage in capacitors was exploited as dynamic memory in early digital computers.
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